Community acquired pneumonia

Prepare a 350-word draft of a clinical problem that you would like to use for your Research project. There should be an introduction to the problem (as to why it is a problem) that is documented with literature, a clear problem statement (one declarative sentence that begins with “The problem is…”, and a purpose to your project. Post this as your Initial response. (Essential I-IX).

Community-acquired pneumonia continues to have a significant impact on elderly individuals, who are affected more frequently and with more severe consequences than younger populations. As the population ages it is expected that the medical and economic impact of this disease will increase. Despite these concerns, little progress has been made in research specifically focusing on community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly. The problem is Community-acquired pneumonia in elderly patients. Despite widespread availability of antibiotic therapy and sophisticated severity of illness assessments, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) continues to be a leading cause of death worldwide. In the elderly population, defined as those aged over 65 years, the impact of pneumonia is far greater than in other age groups. The annual incidence of pneumonia in the elderly is four-times that of younger populations. In addition, older adults have higher rates of hospitalization and are more likely to die as a result of CAP. The elderly population is increasing at twice the rate of the general population, necessitating a better understanding of the pathophysiology, microbiology, treatment and prevention of this common affliction. The mechanisms behind the disproportionate incidence and mortality rates in elderly pneumonia patients are not fully understood. Several physiologic changes in older adults have been implicated as risk factors for CAP. Changes in basic lung physiology as a result of aging include decreased elastic recoil, increased air trapping (senile emphysema), decreased chest wall compliance and reduced respiratory muscle strength. These factors may act to increase baseline work of breathing, giving older individuals less reserve to cope with bacterial infections in the lung. In addition, reduced mucocilliary clearance and diminished cough reflex have been described. These findings, combined with greater upper airway colonization with virulent organisms, may predispose this population to develop lower respiratory tract infections.



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