# Statistics Multiple Choice Questions

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The statement that a person who scores 120 has twice as much of the trait being measured as someone who scores 60 is appropriate for:

a variable measured on an interval scale | |

a variable measured on a ratio scale |

any continuous variable | |

any test whose scores are normally distributed |

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**Question 20.5 pts**

Which of these is a discrete measure?

How many points you earn on a test | |

How many inches you grew in a year |

How many term papers are due this semester | |

How many hours you study for an exam |

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**Question 30.5 pts**

It is not possible to report the average score for data measured on what type of scale?

nominal | |

ordinal |

interval | |

ratio |

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**Question 40.5 pts**

Jane’s percentile rank on a science exam is 78. This means that:

Jane answered 78% of the questions correctly on the exam | |

Jane’s score was equal to or greater than 78% of the other students’ scores |

Jane achieved a score of 78% on the exam | |

Jane scored the same as 78% of the other students |

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**Question 50.5 pts**

Rudy scores 83% on a test. From that, we know that:

Rudy’s percentile rank is 83% | |

83% of the people who took the test scored the same or lower than Rudy |

Rudy scored above average | |

Out of 100 possible points, Rudy scored 83 points |

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**Question 60.5 pts**

Here is a set of scores: 3,6,2,9,4,7,5,7,7,5. If the scores were entered into a frequency table, what would be the cumulative frequency?

7 | |

9 |

10 | |

55 |

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**Question 70.5 pts**

Your data consist of the average family size for all families within each of six different income levels. What type of visual display would best convey the data?

histogram | |

line graph |

bar chart | |

frequency table |

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**Question 80.5 pts**

You are constructing a histogram for scores that range from 70 to 100 in whole points. Frequencies range from 3 to 10; that is, every whole-point score between 60 and 100 occurs at least 3 times, and at least one score occurs 10 times. Which of these would probably be the best range and size for the score intervals along the *X*-axis?

1-point intervals from 70 and 100 | |

1-point intervals from 0 and 100 |

5-point intervals from 70 and 100 | |

10-point intervals from 70 and 100 |

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**Question 910 pts**

You are looking at a frequency table for a large number of scores. Without doing any further calculating, which measure of central tendency can you immediately report?

mode | |

median |

mean | |

none of these |

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**Question 1010 pts**

In a set of raw scores for a teacher-constructed test, what will be the shape of the distribution around the mean?

normal | |

bimodal |

skewed | |

it could be distributed in any of these ways |

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**Question 110.5 pts**

From the standard deviation, we know something about the:

general location of most scores within a scores distribution | |

spread of scores within the scores distribution |

shape of the scores distribution | |

frequency at each score value |

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**Question 120.5 pts**

You select a sample of 50 scores from a population of 2,000 scores. You compute the range andstandard deviation on the sample of 50 scores. You then select another sample of 50 scores from the same population. What measure of dispersion is likely to vary *most* between your first and second samples?

the range | |

the standard deviation |

they will both vary by the same amount | |

there is no way to know which one will likely vary most |

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**Question 130.5 pts**

Here is a set of scores: 5, 5, 8, 14, 22, 22. If the set of scores is changed to 6, 6, 8, 14, 21, 21, how will these changes affect the standard deviation?

It will decrease the standard deviation | |

It will increase the standard deviation |

It will have no effect on the standard deviation | |

There is not enough information to tell |

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**Question 140.5 pts**

The probability of rolling a 3 on a die is .17 over the long term (under an infinite number of rolls).What is the probability of rolling a 3 on a single roll?

.00 | |

.17 |

.83 | |

1.00 |

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**Question 150.5 pts**

The probability of drawing a heart from a deck of cards is .25 over the long term (under an infinite number of draws). What is the probability of getting a heart on a single draw?

.00 | |

.25 |

.75 | |

1.00 |

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**Question 160.5 pts**

A market researcher obtains a list of all streets in a town. She randomly samples 10 street names from the list, and then administers survey questions to every family living on those 10 streets. What type of sampling is this?

simple random | |

stratified random |

cluster | |

convenience |

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**Question 170.5 pts**

In an experiment to determine the effect of exercise on weight-loss among postmenopausal women who are employed outside the home, what is the DEPENDENT variable?

exercise | |

menopausal status |

employment status | |

weight loss |

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**Question 180.5 pts**

“Dogs that receive regular veterinary care live longer than those who do not receive such care.” What type of hypothesis is this?

null | |

directional |

non-directional | |

double-barreled |

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**Question 190.5 pts**

“There will be no difference in the activity level of hyperactive children given medication and those not given medication.” What type of hypothesis is this?

null | |

directional |

non-directional | |

double-barreled |

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**Question 200.5 pts**

A researcher plans to conduct a one-tailed test of her hypothesis at the .05 error level. Just before running the experiment, she decides that a two-tailed test is more appropriate. If she does not adjust the error level, how much error will her new study permit in a single tail?

.10 | |

.05 |

.025 | |

There is not enough information to tell |

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**Question 210.5 pts**

Professor Stringent conducts his study at a .01 error level. Professor Lax conducts his study at a .10 error level. Whose study is the better study?

Professor Stringent’s | |

Professor Lax’s |

Both professors’ studies are equally worthy | |

There is not enough information to tell |

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**Question 220.5 pts**

The probability of a score falling at or below a particular *z* score is .8734. If you reject the null hypothesis, what is your Type 1 error level?

87.34% | |

12.66% |

0.13% | |

There is not enough information to tell |

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**Question 230.5 pts**

What is the probability of a Type 1 error if you reject the null hypothesis based on a *z* score of .50?

0% | |

50% |

100% | |

It depends on the individual values of the raw scores |

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**Question 240.5 pts**

Assume that a population of scores is normally distributed with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10. For samples of size 25, we would expect 95% of the* sample means* (not of the raw scores) to fall between what two values?

30 and 70 | |

40 and 55 |

46 and 54 | |

51 and 59 |

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**Question 250.5 pts**

A population has a mean of 300 and a standard deviation of 25. You draw a random sample from that population. What is the sample’s *most likely* mean?

0 | |

25 |

300 | |

There is not enough information to tell |

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**Question 260.5 pts**

If the population mean is 50 and the standard deviation is 5, what is the normal deviate Z for a sample of 20 people with a mean of 46?

-4.46 | |

-3.57 |

1.12 | |

-0.25 |

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**Question 270.5 pts**

A two-tailed *t* test study for a single sample of 28 participants yields a *t* of -2.35. Look up this value in a t-table. Given the fixed number of participants, what is the lowest tabled alpha level at which this *t* is statistically significant?

1% | |

2% |

5% | |

10% |

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**Question 280.5 pts**

In a one-sample *t* test, if the observed sample mean turns out to be one that would rarely occur when the null hypothesis is true, what should the researcher do?

reject the null hypothesis | |

retain the null hypothesis |

repeat the test until we get a more probable sample mean | |

change the level of significance (Type I error) |

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**Question 290.5 pts**

A research report says that *t *(63) = 1.99; *p* = .03. From that information, can you reject the null hypothesis with 95% confidence?

yes | |

no |

it depends on the sample size | |

it depends on the size of the Type 1 error |

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**Question 300.5 pts**

Which of these confidence intervals would include the widest range of scores?

68% | |

95% |

99% | |

All confidence intervals are a standard range |

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**Question 310.5 pts**

What is the mean of any sampling distribution of the difference between the means?

0 | |

The same as the difference between the two sample means in the study |

The square root of the combined sample size of the two samples in the study | |

It depends on the value of the raw scores in the two sampling distributions |

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**Question 320.5 pts**

For a very small sample size, you should expect the size of the standard error of the difference between the means to be:

larger than usual | |

about the same size as usual |

smaller than usual | |

almost zero |

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**Question 330.5 pts**

In a two-sample *t* test, if the observed difference between the sample means turns out to be one thatcould easily occur when the null hypothesis is true, what should we do?

Reject the null hypothesis | |

Retain the null hypothesis |

Repeat the test until we get a less probable difference between the means | |

Change the level of significance (Type 1 error) |

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**Question 340.5 pts**

Which of these would be a related samples study?

1. Amount of sugar added to coffee by men versus women

2. Running speed for soccer players pre-season versus post-season

3. Number of hours the members of a class study for a weekly quiz versus a unit exam

1 and 2 only | |

1 and 3 only |

2 and 3 only | |

1, 2 and 3 |

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**Question 350.5 pts**

The hypothesis testing procedure for comparing means of RELATED samples would be appropriate for comparing:

differences in the religious beliefs of best friends | |

the distance that 12-year-olds versus 14-year-olds can kick a soccer ball |

final grades in a course taught by Professor Jones compared with final grades in a course taught by Professor Smith | |

birth weights of babies born to drug-addicted mothers and birth weights of babies born to mothers who are not drug-addicted |

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**Question 360.5 pts**

The hypothesis testing procedures for comparing means of INDEPENDENT samples would be appropriate for comparing:

IQ scores of children attending a public elementary school as they progress from grade to grade | |

husbands’ and wives’ attitudes toward higher education |

male and female problem-solving skills (number of moves toward the correct solution) on a spatial puzzle task | |

software “usefulness” ratings by users who try both Software A and Software B |

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**Question 3710 pts**

“Children whose parents smoke in their presence are more likely to develop asthma than childrenwhose parents do not smoke in their presence.” How many tails should be used when looking up the *t*test statistic for this study?

one tail | |

two tails |

either one tail or two tails (it doesn’t matter) | |

there is not enough information to tell |

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**Question 380.5 pts**

When subjects who are treated in the SAME way differ in performance, what accounts for their measured difference?

between-groups variation | |

within-groups variation |

total variation | |

treatment variation |

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**Question 390.5 pts**

When subjects who are treated in the SAME way differ in performance, what accounts for their measured difference?

random error | |

the treatment |

the IV (independent variable) | |

this cannot happen |

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**Question 400.5 pts**

“One way” means that:

there is only one correct way to calculate the test statistic | |

the results can be in only one direction |

there is only one sample (group) in the study | |

there is only one IV (independent variable) in the study |

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**Question 410.5 pts**

The appropriate statistic to use when testing the hypothesis for a study with three treatment groups is a:

one-sample t test | |

two-sample t test |

ANOVA F test | |

Pearson’s correlation coefficient |

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**Question 420.5 pts**

You have conducted an analysis of variance and found no statistical significance in the *F*. Should you then calculate a post hoc test?

Yes, to see where the hidden significance might lie | |

Yes, to locate the confounding variables that might have masked the effect |

Yes, to validate your non-significant F | |

No, because there is there is no statistical significance to be found |

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**Question 430.5 pts**

You conduct an ANOVA at the .05 error level and find a significant *F*. You conduct a Tukey HSD post hoc test on the same data at the same .05 error level and find no significant difference between the particular groups. From these results, you know that:

the sample size in each group was not sufficient to pick up the effect detected by the F test | |

the variation within each group masked the variation between the groups |

you should have conducted your Tukey HSD at the .01 error level | |

you have made a calculation error in either the F test or the Tukey HSD |

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**Question 440.5 pts**

Your chi-square study has 4 categories or conditions of the first variable and 4 levels or conditions of the second variable. How many degrees of freedom are in this study?

7 | |

8 |

9 | |

16 |

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**Question 450.5 pts**

You are testing the hypothesis that the average salary of college graduates 1 year out of college is related to the graduates’ genders and to the graduates’ fields of study. What is the appropriate analytic technique for this study?

two-sample t-test | |

analysis of variance |

chi-square goodness of fit | |

chi-square test of independence |

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**Question 460.5 pts**

You are testing the hypothesis that the grade point averages differs between college athletes and non-athletes. What is the appropriate analytic technique for this study?

two-sample t-test | |

Pearson correlation coefficient |

chi-square goodness of fit | |

chi-square test of independence |

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**Question 470.5 pts**

In a correlational study, we seek to determine:

if the independent variable causes an outcome in the dependent variable | |

which variable is the cause and which variable is the effect |

the direction of causation | |

how well one variable predicts another variable |

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**Question 480.5 pts**

In a scatterplot, the data for a negative correlation will graph in what direction?

from the bottom left to the upper right | |

from the upper left to the bottom right |

parallel to the horizontal X-axis | |

parallel to the vertical Y-axis |

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**Question 490.5 pts**

In a scatter diagram, if one of the points does not fall on the straight line of best fit to the data points, then *r* cannot be:

0 | |

+1.00 or -1.00 |

positive | |

negative |

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**Question 500.5 pts**

Which one of the following would most likely show a negative correlation?

verbal aptitude and number of books read per year | |

body weight and age at which puberty was reached |

amount of alcohol ingested and driving ability | |

educational level and income |

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**Question 510.5 pts**

The usefulness of a screening test for selecting college students for inclusion in an Honors program implies what type of relationship between the screening test and college grade point average (GPA)?

positive | |

negative |

curvilinear | |

perfect |

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**Question 520.5 pts**

Which of these correlations is the strongest?

-0.75 | |

0.00 |

+0.50 | |

+0.67 |

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**Question 530.5 pts**

Assume that, for variables *X* and *Y*, the statistics are as follows:

__Variable X __

__Variable__

*Y*

Mean = 50 Mean = 100

Stand. Dev. = 10 Stand. Dev. = 20

*rxy* = +1.00

What would be the predicted score on variable *Y* for a person who scores 40 on variable *X*? (Note: This can be answered without any formulas or calculations)

40 | |

80 |

100 | |

120 |

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**Question 540.5 pts**

If *r* = −1.00, which one of the following will be true?

Scores on X will be of no use in predicting scores on Y. | |

Scores on X can be perfectly predicted from scores on Y. |

The scores on X and Y are both negative. | |

The relationship becomes difficult to interpret. |

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**Question 550.5 pts**

For the regression equation Y’ = bX + a, what is the value of the criterion for someone who scores 60 on the predictor, where the correlation is .75, and where the prediction line’s Y-intercept is 5?

45 | |

48.75 |

50 | |

55 |

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**Question 560.5 pts**

You conduct a study with four uncorrelated predictors. Then you remove one of the predictors. How should the removal of this predictor change the *R2*?

it will go up | |

it will go down |

it will stay the same | |

there is not enough information to tell |

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**Question 570.5 pts**

The main difference between a simple and multiple regression is:

the number of dependent variables | |

the number of independent variables |

the scales of measure of the independent variables | |

the size of the samples |

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**Question 580.5 pts**

In a curvilinear relationship:

the variables are unrelated | |

a scatterplot provides little information about the variables |

the trend of the variables changes direction | |

an additional variable is necessary to explain the relationship |

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**Question 590.5 pts**

Another term for a regression intercept is:

unexplained variance | |

collinearity |

heterogenity | |

constant |

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**Question 600.5 pts**

Nationwide, undergraduate college enrollment by gender is 55% female and 45% male. A professor wants to know the opinions of male versus female undergraduates nationwide. To ensure equal representation of the two genders, what sampling method should the professor use?

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