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Question 1:


In my family, we practice good sanitation practices such as clearing bushes, draining stagnate water, bathing, cleaning the compound to prevent breeding grounds for dangerous insects such as mosquitoes. All the children in our household are immunized when they are young to enhance immunity against diseases such as measles, diarrheal diseases, and tetanus.

A family member also receives a vaccination, especially when traveling to particular disease-prone areas (Luquis & Pérez, 2021). For instance, most of the family members were vaccinated against coronavirus due to the ongoing pandemic. In my family, we ensure a constant supply of water and better food to ensure good health. In our household, when someone gets ill, we are normally there for each other’s support. If the illness requires emergency medical attention, we carter for necessary resources to ensure that our loved one gets what he or she needs for quick recovery.

Also, anyone in the family can cook family dinner or call ahead to offer meal choices to the unwell member. We also provide each other with psychological support whenever anyone feels ill and support them in running errands such as picking up dry cleaning and buying groceries. When someone dies in my family, we mourn, and tell friends and family, find out about the federal and burial plans, secure their property, and support their loved ones in case they have.


Cultural competence is one of the most popular emergent trends that aims at improving healthcare outcomes and creating a conducive work environment for health stakeholders.  As a nurse, I understand my role in promoting a healthcare habitat that accommodates the diverse cultural backgrounds of the people interacting with the healthcare system.

Drawing on my ethnic background, which is Latin, I understand the influence of culture on an individual’s healthcare preferences and practices. I was born and raised in a Cuban family, and my fondest memories are filled with the dining experiences at home with family members. Although the moments shared are priceless, the spicy Cuban food served during such moments has devastating effects.

Research indicates that Cubans in the U.S. who principally stick to their Cuban diets, which are high in sugar, fat, and calories, have challenges with their body weight and high blood pressure. In light of this knowledge, there are some preventive measures that we have taken up as a family include, including engaging in physical exercises, sleeping adequately, and avoiding alcoholic beverages. Nurses need to consider the ethnic backgrounds of their patients when developing treatment strategies to ensure the best outcomes.

Question 2:


The five social determinants of health include education, economic stability, health and healthcare, neighborhood and built environment, and social and community context. Health and healthcare factors such as healthcare access and quality healthcare can be barriers to home care and case or care management services (Access to primary care, n.d.). It is important to note that individual with a source of care is more likely to receive recommended preventive and curative services such as blood pressure screenings, flu shots, and cancer screenings.

However, disparities in access to healthcare exist, and many people face challenges that increase the risk of poor health outcomes. Some of the obstacles to healthcare access include language-related barriers, health insurance, disabilities, geographic and transportation-related barriers. Other barriers are inability to take time off work to attend health appointments, and shortage of primary care providers (DeMarco & Healey-Walsh, 2020).

Lack of health insurance decreases primary and preventive care services, and it is associated with poor healthcare outcomes. People that experience reduced access to primary care due to limited availability and provider office hours. Besides, most primary healthcare professionals do not provide health care services during off-work hours. Travel distance and supply of healthcare providers limit people’s ability to get primary care.



In Healthy People 2020, the underlying social determinants introduce a challenge to home healthcare, case and care management. The associated domains consist of “economic stability, education, health and health care, neighborhood and built environment, and social and community context” (“Social determinants of health,” n.d., para. 1).

The first determinant constitutes a menace in view of its potential to define healthcare affordability. Housing instability, poverty, food insecurity, and unemployment contribute to dividing patients of quality and timely service. The second determinant poses a threat due to lack of awareness and comprehension.

While case and care management represent patient-centered delivery systems, they may fail to render care for those who refuse to interact and communicate (DeMarco & Healey-Walsh, 2020). For instance, when the elderly patient prefers alternative medicine over traditional one and stays illiterate on benefits of the latter, the provider is to persuade and communicate for effective treatment and recovery. Lastly, social and community context signify civic participation and social cohesion. It can create barriers as healthcare organizations cannot provide all day long control and communication. Case and care management may guarantee coordinated healthcare interventions, whereas patient’s self-care efforts may either help or worsen their health conditions.

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