# Math homework help

A school psychologist surveyed 75 students (both boys and girls) who had been reported as “bullies” and asked them which bullying method they used most often: physical, verbal, psychological, or cyber-bullying. The results and an excerpt from this fictitious study follow:

Excerpt: “Based on a chi-square test for independence, there was a significant association between gender and bullying method, χ2 (3, N = 75) = 11.85, p < .05.”

Which cutoff chi-square value is appropriate for testing the null hypothesis?

A. 3.841

B. 5.992

C. 7.815

D. 9.488

2.

In a study with 100 participants, an analysis results in a χ2 of 3.15. What is the phi coefficient?

A. √(3.15/1002) = .02

B. √(3.152/100) = .32

C. √[(3.15/(100–1)] = .18

D. √(3.15/100) = .18

3.

What is the formula for the chi-squared statistic?

A.

Σ[(O–E)²/E]

B.

[Σ(O–E)²]/E

C.

O/[Σ(O–E)²]

D.

E/[Σ(O–E)²]

4.

Which of the following statements about the phi coefficient is INCORRECT?

A. It is symbolized by the Greek letter “φ”.

B. It ranges from 0 to 1.

C. It can be interpreted in the same manner as a correlation coefficient.

D. It is based on the chi-square statistic and the degrees of freedom.

5.

Which calculation is necessary for figuring the chi-square statistic?

A. Dividing the absolute differences between observed and expected frequencies by the expected frequency in each cell

B. Dividing the absolute differences between observed and expected frequencies by the observed frequency in each cell

C. Dividing the squared differences between observed and expected frequencies by the expected frequency in each cell

D. Dividing the squared differences between observed and expected frequencies by the observed frequency in each cell

6.

In a third world country, 100 randomly selected people were surveyed about their socioeconomic class and religious affiliation. The results and an excerpt from this fictitious study follow:

Excerpt: “Based on a chi-square test for independence, the working class differed from the middle class in the distribution of religious identification, χ2 (4, N = 100) = 11.73, p < .05.”

Of the total sample, what was the percentage of agnostics, atheists, and others?

A. (12 + 13 + 22)/100 = 47%

B. (4 + 6 + 18)/100 = 28%

C. (8 + 7 + 4)/34 = 56%

D. (12 + 13 + 22)/66 = 71%

7.

The distribution that is always greater than 0 and positively skewed is

the distribution for:

A.

Z.

B.

t.

C.

χ².

D.

U.

8.

According to Cohen’s conventions for the phi coefficient, a large effect size is:

A. .10

B. .15

C. .40

D. .50

9.

A school psychologist surveyed 75 students (both boys and girls) who had been reported as “bullies” and asked them which bullying method they used most often: physical, verbal, psychological, or cyber-bullying. The results and an excerpt from this fictitious study follow:

Excerpt: “Based on a chi-square test for independence, there was a significant association between gender and bullying method, χ2 (3, N = 75) = 11.85, p < .05.”

Which bullying method was expected to be the most common among girls?

A. Physical

B. Verbal

C. Psychological

D. Cyber

10.

When a chi-square test is reported in a research article, which information is typically missing?

A. The degrees of freedom

B. The number of observed cases in each cell

C. The significance of χ2

D. The expected value for each cell

11.

A school psychologist surveyed 75 students (both boys and girls) who had been reported as “bullies” and asked them which bullying method they used most often: physical, verbal, psychological, or cyber-bullying. The results and an excerpt from this fictitious study follow:

Excerpt: “Based on a chi-square test for independence, there was a significant association between gender and bullying method, χ2 (3, N = 75) = 11.85, p < .05.”

What proportion of boys indicated that verbal or cyber bullying was their primary method?

A. (8+6)/30 = .47

B. (7+5)/30 = .40

C. (8+6)/75 = .19

D. (7+5)/75 = .16

12.

In a third world country, 100 randomly selected people were surveyed about their socioeconomic class and religious affiliation. The results and an excerpt from this fictitious study follow:

Excerpt: “Based on a chi-square test for independence, the working class differed from the middle class in the distribution of religious identification, χ2 (4, N = 100) = 11.73, p < .05.”

One finding of the study was that:

A. being working class caused subjects to be Catholic.

B. working class subjects tended to be Protestant, Catholic, or other,

whereas middle class subjects were most likely to be Protestant.

C. middle class subjects valued religion more than working class subjects.

D. being Catholic caused subjects to be working class.

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