Cardiovascular Disease











Cardiovascular disease posits a major cause of premature deaths and disability throughout the world and contributes to a significant increase in healthcare costs, particularly in medication, healthcare services, and production loss. Specifically, heart diseases and stroke accommodate the highest prevalence rate in the USA; accommodate an average of 610,000 and 365,000 annual deaths from CVD (CDC, 2015). Similarly, every year, CVD causes the USA approximately, $207 billion for medication, healthcare services, and productivity loss. Noteworthy, heart diseases and stroke incidences vary with factors such as ethnicity, gender, age, and individuals with certain disorders. Similarly, the project accommodates notable articulations on intervention, comparison, outcome, and time as a fundamental consideration in heart diseases and stroke in the USA. Thus, an enriched articulation on heart diseases and stroke are underscoring for the project presentation.


According to (Mayo Clinic, 2018), Heart disease describes a condition that affects the heart; including blood vessels diseases arrhythmias, and other heart defects. Significantly, the heart disease is interchangeable for the CVD, articulating on the infections involving narrowed or blocked blood vessels, causing a heart attack, chest pain, and stroke, among other clinical presentations. Similarly, (Mayo Clinic, 2018) acknowledges that many CVD is preventable and treatable with healthy lifestyle choices.


Cardiovascular diseases posits an undying cause of death in the USA, projected at 840, 678 deaths in 2016, averagely one in three deaths (Salim et al. 2020). Similarly, between 2013 and 2016 121.5 million adults Americans presented notable for of the CVD. Notably, between 2013 and 2015 direct and indirect costs of managing the CVD in the USA, recorded $213.8 billion and $137.4 billion respectively. Statistically, between 2013 and 2016, 57.1% of non-HN black females and 60.1% of non-HN black males presenting CVD manifestations (Salim et al. 2020). According to the researcher causes of the CVD Include atherosclerosis resulting from an unhealthy diet, lacking exercise, overweight, and smoking. In the epistemology studies, risk factors such as age, sex, family history, smoking, chemotherapy and radiation drugs, high blood pressure, poor diet, obesity, physical inactivity, stress, and poor hygiene are underscoring risk factors in the CVD (Mayo Clinic, 2018). Thus, heart disease epistemological indicates the patterns, causes, risk factors, and specific populations in the USA.

Clinical Presentations

Cardiovascular disease acclaims clinical presentations that may differ between men and women. According to (Mayo Clinic, 2018), men present significant chest pain that women and women clinical presentations such as shortness in breathing, nausea, and fatigue are more evident than in men. Admittedly, the general clinical presentation of the CVD includes chest pet, and discomfort, , tightness pressure ,pain, numbness, and weakness, and pain regions such as neck, jaw, upper abdomen, back, and throat (Mayo Clinic, 2018). Thus, prominent manifestations such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and fainting prompt a patient to see a doctor for diagnosis and clinical management.


The CVD complication results from heart arrhythmias, and dilated cardiomyopathy and, heart defects, heart infections and, atherosclerotic diseases. According to (Mayo Clinic, 2018), heart disease and stroke complications include heart failure, heart attack, stroke, peripheral artery diseases, cardiac arrest, and aneurysm. Therefore, a comprehensive diagnosis should accommodate heart disease complications for evidence-based case management.


Heart diseases acclaim several diagnosis methods and procedures in clinical settings for effective case identification and management among patients. Some diagnoses and stress include X-ray, ECG, exercise stress test, echocardiography, blood test, coronary angiography, MRI scan, CT scans, and radionuclide test (Salim et al. 2020). Thus, identifying appropriate diagnosis methods in clinical testing is necessary for an effective outcome and heart disease management.

Conclusion with PICOT Question

In conclusion, understanding the definition of epidemiological studies, clinical presentations, complication, diagnosis, and PICOT question provide an enriched articulation on heart disease and stroke management in the USA. (P) In the patient with risk factors for CVD (I), how does exposure behavior such as smoking and physical inactivity (C) versus a patient with limited and unknown risk factors (I) contribute to CVD treatment (T) in two years’ time frame?






Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention. (2015). Heart Disease Facts.

Mayo Clinic. (2018). Heart Disease.

Salim, V. et al. (2020). Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2020 Update: A Report from the American Heart Association. AHA Journals, 141, 9.

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