Social determinants of health include biological, environmental, social, and economic factors that influence the access and maintenance of health (Green, 2018). For example, those living in low socioeconomic areas may not have the resources to obtain fresh food and will oftentimes rely on fast food chains. According to a study posted by the American Journal of Preventive Medicine (2004), low-income areas had 2.5 times more fast-food chains than those living in more affluent areas. As a result of this many minorities living in low-income areas have a great risk of obesity and comorbidities such as type II diabetes and hypertension. While the study done by the American Journal of Preventive Medicine was more than five years ago the results of their study continue to be prevalent as the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2018) states children and adolescents are more likely to be obese than their higher-income counterparts. This is an example of how social determinants of health contribute to the development of disease. The child who has grown up with a poor diet is less likely to change their diet habits as adults resulting in fatal health conditions.
Social determinants also contribute to the spread of communicable diseases due to crowding, sanitization, uncontaminated water, and access to health care (Green,2018). The infectious disease process of communicable diseases is represented by the chain model also known as the chain of infection. The chain of infection begins with the infectious organism and describes how the organism reproduces and spreads through contact, droplets, or surfaces. As the nurse taking care of an individual with a communicable disease the simplest and most effective form of breaking the chain is by proper handwashing. The nurse can also contribute to the stop of the chain by wiping down surfaces with the proper cleaning agents, placing the appropriate PPE outside of the patient’s room, and clustering care to avoid excessive time inside of the patient’s room. All of these interventions contribute to the stop of the transmission phase of the chain model.
Using 200-300 words APA format with references to support the discussion.
What are social determinants of health? Explain how social determinants of health contribute to the development of disease. Describe the fundamental idea that the communicable disease chain model is designed to represent. Give an example of the steps a nurse can take to break the link within the communicable disease chain.