Running head: NURSING THEORIES 9

Nursing Theories

Jadiam Lopez

Professor Anny Dionne



Study One

Bt, the use of Leininger’s Society Care Model, which elements in the story from the patient, must be in consideration by Nurse Hernandez in formulating a diseased discharge?

Mrs. Franklin-Jones gave insights into some crucial information that should concern the nurse when planning for any diseased discharge. Education concerning four identification factors is necessary (Medicine & health science books @ Amazon, 2018). The four factors are the benefits of taking medicines as prescribed by the doctor, following the cardiac meal, having some rest, and avoiding taking herbal tea in the form of a supplement. First, prescribed medicine compliance must be followed. The nurse must educate the patient on the importance of taking medicines as prescribed to maintain a healing level in the system.

Mrs. Franklin-Jones may change cooking food at home compared to her Jamaican method in ensuring the food has high fiber, low salt, and low fat. In talking about the issue of benefits that come alongside taking the medicines as prescribed and the concern of following her culture with changing the cooking method, the nurse must emphasize the importance and benefits of adequate rest. Two tasks might overpower her, and this may alleviate cardiac disease. Having proper rest amid the shifts may help her in regaining energy.

The last one, despite the consumption of herbal tea being a symbol of her culture, taking the research of the risks and the benefits is very important for her. According to recent research by professor Ragoobirsingh, the director of diabetes program in UWI, there was a vast usage of bush tea for various illnesses among its kidney disorders.

Importance of Society Care Diversity in delivering nursing aid

The culture care framework introduces various cultural nursing care, which promotes diversity alongside culture care. Dr. Leininger had a belief that taking care of people from differing cultures was an essential and critical need. Diversity in the nursing sector is crucial because it gives opportunities for administering quality care in diseased. Diversity in this sector entails veteran status, gender, race, age, disability, religion, socioeconomic status, tribal heritage, sexual orientation, national origin, educational background, and physical traits.

Communication with the diseased can be improved and enhance patient care when healthcare givers close the gap between medicine culture and practices and beliefs, which entails the diseased value system (Fitzpatrick & Carthy, 2014). When the nursing taskforce has a reflection of the diseased demographic communication, we will then improve, and this makes the patient more comfortable. A person who does not associate with you may not advocate adequately for your importances.

If there are nurses who have an understanding of the patient religious views, customs, foods, environment, and culture, they can offer patients the appropriate care. Each healthcare giver experience allows having positive impacts on diseased health. This potential is maximized through learning about the diseased culture. It will significantly help in practicing cultural sensitivity and awareness as well as cultural competency.

Using Leininger’s Theory of Society Care Diversity, together with Universal, formulates care plan for patient.

The care plan for the patient may be quite complicated and comprehensive (Watson, 2019). For the appropriate care plan in this patient, we need to consider the following; giving caution on the consumption of herbal tea in the form of a supplement, having some rest, following a heart diet, and taking medicines as prescribed. The nurse will follow the following process: nursing assessment, diagnosis, intervention, and evaluation. It is necessary to have an assessment and identify the gaps in the knowledge shortages concerning medicine compliance, heart diet, dietary supplements, and adequate rest. After identifying the knowledge shortages, specified teaching is provided to Mrs. Franklin-Jones.

Strengths as well as limitations to Leininger’s Theory

Leininger’s cultural care model of diversity, together with Universality, has its aim in providing and improving the culture congruous care to all individuals for maintenance and regaining of their well-being and health. Culture influences each life aspect since they are primary factors that individuals learn, share and pass from generation to generation.


It recognizes the cultural importance and the influence of each aspect. It is the only model that has its focus on uniquely in the intimate interrelationships of care and culture on an individual death, illness, health, and well-being. It is the only model that focuses on comparative care culture. Being the most multidimensional and holistic model, it has had discoveries of multifaceted and specific based care practices and meanings. It is the first model that focuses on discovering worldwide culture care differences and diversities as well as care commonalities and universalities. It is in a research design method that fits the theory. It focuses on the culture concept in offering nursing care to the diseased. It helps nurses to be sensitive towards culture. Compared to other models that focus on nursing, environment, and people, she highlights care as the nursing backbone. In her ideas, we should have an understanding of the cultural idea before any nursing action.


Very few nurses are prepared academically for the culture care model. It may be the leading cause of errors when making medical decisions such as outcomes and values misperception of the results. Not all collected data is applicable and accurate towards clients. It is then necessary to consider the individual uniqueness. If nurses practiced do not recognize the cultural dimensions of individual needs, there is a lack of practical nursing care practices and dissatisfaction in the nursing duties. Does this imply that a single principle in the provision of efficient care is the logical culture care? It may be an aspect but does not imply that we should not consider the other beneficial items, since we require remembering that we must offer holistic care not just in the culture concept.

The model ignores diseases and symptoms. They may be an issue in integrating or adapting others’ cultures, which may result in culture shock on the nurse’s part. Researching culture does not imply that we can relate to it since studying differs from real experience.

Case Study Two

Hypothesis of Transpersonal Caring relationship as well as nurse’s responsibilities

Science and philosophy in care have four main concepts, health, human being, nursing, society, or environment. Jean Watson refers to humans as a person’s values to be taken care of, nurtured, respected, assisted, and understood. Generally, a view of the philosophy of an individual as a fully integrated person is functioning. Human in view is more significant than similar to added parts. Watson’s model has seven bases; Caring may be practiced and demonstrated effectively, not only individually. Caring consists of factors in creativity that lead to human needs satisfaction. Caring improves individual and health or family development. The environment of caring is the one that provides the possible growth and patient being allowed to decide the excellent method at a certain period. A caring scientist is complimentary to curing scientists. The caring practice is at the center of nursing.

The nursing model states that nursing is in consideration with the promotion of health, prevention of diseases, sick care, and restoration of health. Its emphasis is on the promotion of health and disease treatment. Watson had a faith that health care is keys in caring activity in nursing. She says care is the experiences of human science and person health-disease in meditation to individual, scientific and professional transactions of persons.

How love is evident in the caring period as in definition by Watson

As an aiding part, love can lead to the healing of a patient and have benefits to nurses, which help them in converting systems (Medicine & health science books @ Amazon, 2017). Loving being an aspect of care to humans may mean a show of respect for the values of humans, altruism and cooperation, human dignity, respect, and sacrifice towards patients. While entering the unit, Claude Jean-Baptiste saw the welcoming symbols written in some languages where his language was inclusive. During the first nurse’s assessment, he tells Mr. Jean-Baptiste that the nurses welcomed him to get a relationship on his part to be assured in understanding and meeting his requirements. He is questioned on Haitian beliefs and customs which they may glorify. Mr. Jean-Baptiste is bucked up to elevate spiritual together with food items of share and care some things in his society with the nursing team.

How can nurses creatively make use of self in creating a healing atmosphere?

Practice kindness, composure, and love within the consciousness in the context of caring. Be presenting in an authentic, sustaining, and enable the hope, belief, and faith system of a personal level. Cultivate a personal practice of spiritual and transpersonal self and go beyond self-importance. Sustain and develop a trusting, helping, and reliable, caring relation. Support the expression and be available on negative or positive feelings. In the creative utilization of self and all types of ways to know about the caring part process, engage in healing and caring.

Engaging in a genuine experience of learning and teaching that attend in wholeness means that you can stay within the other reference frame—creating a healing compound in all ways, where wholeness, dignity, comfort, peace, and beauty are practiced. Assisting in basic requirements, having an intention on consciousness caring, administer care of humans is essential, this practice the mind-body-spirit alignment and in all aspects of care. Be open and attending the higher dimensions of a person’s life-death that include caring of the soul for and individual and the soul being cared for.

Strengths as well as limitations to Watson’s Theory


Even if some consider complex Watson’s theory, a lot of people find it’s easy to understand. This model may not be in utilization towards improvement and guidance practice as it may equip the providers of healthcare with more satisfying ways of the activity which may provide the members good caring (Farland & Alamah, 2014). He also considers the utilization of sophisticated, non-technical, evolutionary, and fluid language to describe her conception fully. They include curative factor, simple, paradoxically, Caritas, and caring-love.

Besides, the theory is ordered in the carative factors based on broad use that gives framework support. The factor of creativity is orderly derived from the use and has a relationship to hierarchy requirements. Watson’s theory has a superficial understanding as a moral based on nursing. Framework scope covers a large aspect of wellness disease phenomena. This theory addresses the aspects of health promotion, preventing diseases and dying peaceful is experienced, therefore improving its ideas. The carative factor gives a guide for the interaction between patient and the nurses, vital aspects of care to patients.


The theory doesn’t provide expressed direction concerning what to do towards achieving authentic relationships on caring-healing. Nurses who need guidelines cannot feel secure during their trial to the utilization of this theory. Some have a suggestion that it takes a lot of time to cooperate the Caritas in practice, and some note that Watson’s individual development emphasizes a quality that during the appearance to some cannot request others.




















Human caring science: A nursing (Watson, nursing: Human science and human care): 9781449628109: Medicine & health science books @ (2017). Retrieved from

Leininger’s culture care diversity and Universality: A worldwide nursing theory (Cultural care diversity (Leininger)): 9781284026627: Medicine & health science books @ (2018). Retrieved from

Fitzpatrick, J. J., & Carthy, G. (2014).  Theories guiding nursing research and practice: Making nursing knowledge development explicit. Springer Publishing Company.

Farland, M. R., & Alamah, H. B. (2014).  Leininger’s culture care diversity and Universality. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Watson, J. (2019).  Nursing: Human science and human care: a theory of nursing. Jones & Bartlett Learning.