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Demonstrating Effective Leadership




Learner’s Full Name (no credentials)

School of Nursing and Health Sciences, Capella University

NHS8002: Collaboration, Communication, and Case Analysis for Doctoral Learners

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July 1, 2021





Copyright ©2021 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited.

Demonstrating Effective Leadership

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2019a), deaths due to

opioid overdose have increased almost six-fold in the last 10 years. Opioid overdose is also

responsible for an average of 130 deaths in the United States every day. Although there is a lot of

scholarly literature available on evidence-based approaches to tackle the problem of addiction,

prevention and treatment interventions require an effective coalition. The following assessment

focuses on addressing the issue of opioid addiction in Charleston, West Virginia, through the

formation of effective coalition teams. A thorough analysis of factors contributing to the problem

helps in understanding who needs to be included in the coalition to make it work most

effectively. The analysis of the contributing factors also helps develop strategies, best practices,

and ethical standards that the coalition team should consider to ensure that it achieves its goal.

An effective coalition must also strive to operate in an environment that is diverse and inclusive

and uses evidence in the field to inform every aspect of practice.

Contributing Factors to Opioid Addiction

According to a report by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (2019), West Virginia

reported the highest number of deaths due to opioid overdose. In 2017, about 833 deaths were

reported in West Virginia, with a prevalence rate of about 49.6 deaths for every 100,000 people.

This rate was three times the national rate of 14.6 deaths per 100,000 persons (National Institute

on Drug Abuse, 2019).

There are many factors that contribute to opioid abuse and addiction. Social determinants

of health and their influence on the opioid crisis are important factors to consider. They include

aspects such as education, income stability, social participation, access to affordable health care,

and childhood trauma (Compton & Manseau, 2019). Another contributor to the increase of




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opioid addiction is the overprescribing of opioid painkillers. Opioid painkillers are aggressively

marketed as treatments for non-cancer chronic pain, leading to an explosion in the number of

prescriptions for such painkillers (Compton & Manseau, 2019). According to Anderson and

McNair (2018), individuals seeking treatment for opioid addiction are often in despairing social,

financial, and health conditions. These factors result in the widespread use of opioids and the

expansion of opioid availability, which act as major barriers for individuals seeking treatment for

opioid addiction. Poor financial statuses, a lack of positive relationships, peer pressure, limited

coverage of insurance facilities, and habitancy in rural areas also act as barriers for seeking and

accessing quality treatment services.

Coalition to Address Opioid Addiction

In Charleston, West Virginia, a coalition team is being formed by extensively analyzing

the contributing factors that lead to opioid addiction. Members of the coalition will include

medical professionals, mental health professionals, pharmacists, health services professionals,

community leaders, and community members. These members are most likely to have extensive

experience in dealing with the effects of the opioid crisis in both clinical and nonclinical settings,

and they will be able to provide invaluable insights to tackle opioid addiction in the city of

Charleston (Compton & Manseau, 2019).

The team will be composed of nine members as listed in the following table; through

their expertise, the team members will work toward preventing opioid addiction in Charleston

West Virginia.




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Table 1


Coalition Team Members and Their Contribution

Coalition Team Members Contribution

Dr. R. S., a senior psychiatrist certified by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology and the Head of Department of Psychiatry at D. S. Hospital, West Virginia

Analyzes the root causes of opioid addiction and determines the most effective treatment and preventive strategies to combat opioid addiction.

J. W., a local restaurant owner and currently in recovery from opioid addiction

Provides valuable real time input related to contributing factors and the current state of access to treatment for opioid addiction and the struggles of people with addiction.

M. T., president of the West Virginia Pharmacists Association Provides the data required to track the supply of opioids and spreads awareness on medication-assisted Treatment (MAT) to combat opioid addiction.

A. K., a member of the Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Works to ensure a reduction in the impact of substance abuse and mental illness.

R. K., a member of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Provides scientific expertise on the data and tools required by health care providers to curb opioid addiction.

H. M., a member of the Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America

Works to make West Virginia safe, healthy, and drug-free.

M. S., a member of the Boys and Girls Scouts of America Ensures that awareness of opioid addiction is spread across the youth groups of West Virginia.

F. S., a member of the West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources

Extends support required to prevent opioid addiction, especially in individuals who do not have any funds for treatment and are not eligible to qualify for Medicaid.

Rev. Fr. A. J., a parish priest at St. Christopher’s Cathedral Runs a shelter for addicts. Also runs multiple safe injection sites and basic rehabilitation facilities.



Issues Affecting Collaboration

Several barriers stand in the way of forming an effective coalition to tackle the opioid

crisis. Those members of the coalition who are also part of another organization, one from which




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they could bring in resources to help the coalition, may face resistance from their organizations

about sharing their work, their target populations, and the funding allocated to the organization.

There are potential issues that are endemic to organized groups of people, such as an

unpleasant history with fellow team members, differences due to hierarchy of authority, or the

inability to establish effective leadership within the coalition team. Individuals who are partially

dedicated to the coalition could increase the risk of conflict within the team. Such conflicts, if

left unresolved, can seriously hamper the coalition’s efforts to reach its goal. The coalition could

also be ineffective and unsustainable if there is a failure to establish effective communication

between the coalition team and the community or if the coalition has diminished capacity to

solicit funding. It is also essential for the coalition to have a shared mission and clearly defined

roles and expectations to improve collaboration and minimize conflict (Center for Community

Health and Development, n.d.).

Strategies to Optimize Collaboration

There are five key dimensions of effective coalitions. They are team leadership, mutual

performance monitoring, backup behavior, adaptability, and team orientation (Smith et al.,

2018). Effective leadership provides the coalition with the fundamentals, such as task

coordination and planning in addition to developing and motivating the team by maintaining a

positive and inclusive atmosphere. When coalition members have sufficient knowledge and

understanding of the roles and tasks of other team members of the coalition, they can function as

a backup in case of an overload or absence. Adaptability prepares the members of the coalition to

respond to sudden changes so that the functioning of the coalition is minimally impacted. Lastly,

to be team orientated, the members of the coalition must be willing to take others’ ideas and




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perspectives into consideration and believe that the team’s goals are greater than the individual’s

(Smith et al., 2018).

Strategies to optimize collaboration and communication must address issues relating to

information sharing, personality factors, emotional intelligence, and organizational factors.

Issues related to information sharing can be resolved by ensuring that the whole team is trained

together. Issues can be mitigated by promoting inclusivity and democracy within the team.

Finally, organizational roadblocks can be minimized by providing the team with well-defined

protocols and procedures in addition to maintaining an organizational culture that is unbiased

and supportive (Smith et al., 2018).

Ethical Considerations

The Code of Ethics recommends that health professionals address ethical questions and

dilemmas for the benefit of population health. Ethical principles such as individual autonomy,

mutual respect, social justice, equity, accountability, transparency, trust, open communication,

and the development of leadership are important in dealing with challenges in health care (Laaser

et al., 2017). Laaser et al. published original research that describes in detail methods to draft an

ethical code for a public health initiative that could be beneficial to the coalition. The coalition

can use these methods as guidelines to address ethical practice within the group and in

connecting with the identified population.

On a micro level, the ethical issues associated with tackling an opioid crisis can be

observed when administering treatments to individuals who may not be competent enough to

make decisions for themselves. The decision-making capacity of individuals under the influence

of drugs or experiencing withdrawal is questionable. The coalition team will adhere to guidelines

outlined in The Code of Ethics. The basic principles of these guidelines revolve around respect




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for persons, autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Respect for persons includes

participants’ right to know what changes they would undergo during treatment. Autonomy

involves respecting a

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