Nursing homework help

Reply 1


Research one of the three theories (presented in Chapter 18) for planned change and how that process could be applied to a real nursing change situation.

According to chapter 18, there are 3 theories developed when it came to planned change needed in the nursing field. One of the theories is called Six Phases of Planned Change that was developed back in 1973 by Ronald Havelock. Havelock argued that adapting Lewin’s change model to include knowledge building, which focused on a systematic integration of theories rather than disjointed approaches, would respond more effectively to real-life situations in managing change (Wagner, 2020). The six stages for this theory are as follows: (1) building a relationship, (2) diagnosing the problem, (3) acquiring relevant resources, (4) choosing the solution, (5) gaining acceptance, (6) stabilizing the innovation and generating self-renewal. This can be applied to a real nursing change situation because not only can it assist with any random problem-solving process needed, it exemplifies how a nursing assessment is somewhat conducted. For example, building a trusting therapeutic relationship with a patient is the first to gain their trust, then there’s the process of assessing and diagnosing the problem indicated. Therefore, implementing necessary interventions to resolve the problem and formulate a solution.


Wagner, J. (2020, August 13). 10.4: Planned Change. Retrieved from Medicine LibreTexts:


Reply 2

Is from what you wrote she asked a question for me to answer. Her question is (What is the difference between first order and second order change?)


The planned change is the preparation process for the whole organization for new objectives, directions, or at least a significant component. The guidelines may include culture, internal structures, measures, records, and processes. The Lewin model offers the foundation for understanding the transformation of companies. It was conceived by Kurth Lewin and underwent three phases (Hussain et al., 2018). The Lewin change model states that it is necessary to enhance the causes of the changes in the organization and diminish the forces or elements to support the maintenance of a current state. The results are less stress and less reluctance to change. In this model, there are three main steps, including unfreezing, moving, and refreeze (Fernandez et al., 2020). Unfreezing reduces the variables that sustain existing corporate behavior at the current level. The reasons for psychological disconfirmation can induce freezing. However, moving shifts present organizational behavior, whether individual or departmental, to a different level. Interfering with the present system to develop new attitudes and ideas and necessary administrative reform is also required. Moreover, refreeze during this stage, the organizational balance is stabilized. Supporting processes and procedures are used to achieve refreezing, which forces the new administrative state (Fernandez et al., 2020).

Managers should assess their leadership skills and limits before embarking on a change project since these can substantially influence the project’s success (Zhang, 2019). Research indicates that the most critical factors for planned change are leadership, good communication, and cooperation (Zhang, 2019). The numerous changes that nurse leaders face need new ways of thinking about change leadership and adjusting to new ways of working. Additionally, leaders engage closely with frontline caregivers to design workplace improvements, contributing to better working conditions and patient care. As a result, nurse leaders must have the skills essential to influence human behavior, such as supervisory ability, knowledge, tenacity, and a drive to achieve. Even though Lewin’s change model is well-known and accepted mainly in care delivery, it is often critiqued for being too basic. This is because change may be unexpected and challenging, a competent leader must know a range of change models.

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